Sunday, January 21, 2018

The Earth Is Weeping: The Epic Story of the Indian Wars for the American West

This book is the most factual, historical accounts of all of the wars and conflicts between the white man, U.S Army, colonization and Indigenous tribes, as well as the wars and conflicts within Indigenous tribes. It is the ultimate book on Indian Wars for the American West, occurring after the Civil War.

Peter Cozzens, a fine historian and author, managed to take the most integral parts of Native Indian history and become a storyteller in the process. He objectively tells the truth. When we think of war, we often think of Vietnam, Afghanistan, WWII, however, the wars fought on this land often go unreported and neglected.

The uninterrupted armed conflicts between the U.S. Army and Indigenous tribes of the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains from the 1860’s - 1890’s were Americas longest and most tragic wars.

Wars/Conflicts/Murders covered:

1862 - Dakota Sioux Uprising: Minnesota. 

1864 - Sand Creek Massacre: Colorado. 

1865 - Military command of Missouri, Little Arkansas River Treaties with Southern Plains tribes

1866 - Red Cloud’s War: Montana Territory, Fetterman fight: Montana Territory

1867 - Pawnee Fork Village burning: Kansas, Kidder Massacre: Kansas, Hayfield fight: Montana Territory, Wagon Box Fight: Montana Territory. 

1868 - Military command of Missouri, Battle of Beecher Island: Colorado, Chief Red Cloud: Fort Laramie Treaty, Battle of Washita: Indian Territory.

1869 - Battle of Summit Springs: Kansas, Sitting Bull elected head chief Lakotas.

1870 - Massacre of Piegan Village: Montana.

1871 - Camp Grant Massacre: Arizona Territory, Staked Plain: Texas campaign. 

1872 - Battle of North Fork, Red River: Texas, Clash on Lost River: Oregon, Modoc War, Battle of Salt River Canyon: Arizona Territory. 

1873 - Assassination of General Canby, Sitting Bull: Lakota and Custer battles, Captain Jack hanged.

1874 - Death of Cochise, Apache Battle of Adobe Walls: Indian Territory, Black Hills, Custer: Gold Rush, Battle of Palo Duro Canyon: Texas, Battle of McClellan Creek: Texas. 

1875 - Slaughter of Southern Cheyennes, Sappa Creek: Texas, President Grant's war with Lakotas

1876 - Battle of Powder River: Montana Territory, Lakota/Northern Cheyenne Sun Dance, Deer Medicine Rocks: Montana Territory, Battle of the Rosebud: Montana Territory, Battle of Little Bighorn: Montana Territory, Battle of Slim Buttes: Dakota Territory, Lakota Reservation relinquish unceded Indian Territory, Battle of Cedar Creek: Montana Territory, Destruction of Dull Knife’s Northern Cheyenne Village, Red Fork of the Powder River: Wyoming Territory. 

1877 - Battle of Wolf Mountain: Montana Territory, Crazy Horse surrenders, Fort Robinson: Nebraska, Sitting Bull enters Canada, Battle of White Bird Canyon: Idaho Territory, Nez Perce War, Battle of the Clearwater: Idaho Territory, Battle of the Big Hole: Montana Territory, Crazy Horse killed, Fort Robinson, Battle of Bear Paw Mountain: Montana, Territory, surrender of Chief Joseph, Nez Perce. 

1878 - Northern Cheyenne Exodus.

1879 - Northern Cheyenne Outbreak: Fort Robinson, Chief Little Wolf surrenders, Battle of Milk Creek: Colorado. 

1880 - Battle of Rattlesnake Springs: Texas, Apache Chief Victorio killed: Tres Castillos, Chihuahua, New Mexico. 

1881 - Sitting Bull surrenders, Fort Buford: Texas, Battle of Cibecue Creek: Arizona Territory. 

1882 - Battle of Big Dry Wash: Arizona Territory.

1883 - Crook’s Sierra Madre Campaign: New Mexico, Sitting Bull “agency Indian” Great Sioux Reservation.

1885 - Geronimo breaks out of White Mountain Reservation: Arizona Territory. 

1886 - Crook & Geronimo, Sonora: New Mexico, Geronimo surrenders, Skeleton Canyon: Arizona Territory, Chiricahua Apaches removed from Arizona Territory. 

1889 - Sioux Land Commission breaks up Great Sioux Reservation.

1890 - Sitting Bull killed on Standing Rock Reservation: North Dakota, Wounded Knee Creek Massacre, Pine Ridge Reservation: South Dakota. 

1891 - Brule & Oglala Lakota surrender, Pine Ridge Agency: South Dakota.

The reason I list the battles, massacres, and murders, is this book allows you to read of one or several at a time. Harrowing. Not for the light hearted.

This book will break your heart and enlighten you, simultaneous. Extremely difficult to read without feeling like your own heart has been ripped out of your chest.

The start of the book recounts President Lincoln and peace treaties with Lean Bear, to the immediate slaughter of Lean Bear by U.S. Army. It ends with Wounded Knee. The most horrible inhumane massacre that aligns with Standing Rock Water Protectors today.

This book strengthened an already known fact, that the U.S Government has and continues to use these same tactics they did with the Indigenous during all war. While Indigenous history is a class unto itself, the actions of this government are universal and nothing new.


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